It depends on the environment that your Neato cleans. For environments with a lot of dust or pet hair, more frequent cleaning is necessary. A general rule is that you should clean your Neato filters on a regular basis and replace them every 1-2 months. After every cleaning, empty your dirt bin and tap your filter against the side of a garbage receptacle to release the dirt and debris from the filter. After every few cleanings, you may want to use a handvac to remove the dirt from the filter. Do not clean the filter with water or soap.
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